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HOME > Protocols > Reference Material > Restriction Enzyme Sources
For more information on specific restriction enzymes (incubation temperature, heat inactivation, etc.) or restriction enzyme sources (biohazard level, human health implications, etc.) please check our restriction enzyme listing, or click on the bacteria name in the table below.
Name
Description
Deinococcus radiodurans Deinococcus radiodurans is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Due to the extreme conditions that Deinococcus radiodurans is resistant to it is being investigated for toxic cleanup in highly radioactive sites. Deinococcus radiodurans has been modified to degrade a number of organic compounds as well as converting heavy metal contaminants to less toxic or bioavailable forms.
Deinococcus radiophilus Deinococcus radiophilus is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Superoxide dismutase isolated from Deinococcus radiophilus is stable at pH=5.011.0 and thermostable up to 40C.
Delftia acidovorans Delftia acidovorans is Gram stain negative and aerobic. Delftia acidovorans has been shown to degrade a number of organic compounds such as 2-(4-sulfophenyl)butyrate (SPB) and may be useful degredation of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant in wastewater treatment.
Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Desulfovibrio desulfuricans is Gram stain negative, anaerobic, and motile. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans has been investigated for the bioreduction and biocrystallization of palladium. This suggests possible uses in recovering precious metals used in manufacturing processes.
Enterobacter aerogenes Enterobacter aerogenes is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and motile. Enterobacter aerogenes is being evaluated for hydrogen production.
Enterobacter amnigenus Enterobacter amnigenus is Gram stain negative, motile by peritrichous flagella, and facultatively anaerobic. Enterobacter amnigenus can be isolated from tap water, ground water and soil.
Enterobacter cloacae Enterobacter cloacae is Gram stain negative, motile by peritrichous flagella, and facultatively anaerobic. Enterobacter cloacae has been used in a bioreactor based method for the biodegradation of explosives and in the biological control of plant diseases.
Enterobacter gergoviae Enterobacter gergovieae is Gram stain negative, motile, and aerobic. Enterobacter gergovieae has been isolated from cosmetics, water and from clinical specimens.
Enterococcus durans Enterococcus durans is a gram positive, non-motile, facultative anaerobe. Enterococcus durans infection in poultry has been associated with bacteremia and encephalomalacia.
Enterococcus faecalis Enterococcus faecalis is a gram positive, non-motile, facultative anaerobe. Streptococcus faecalis is a synonym of Enterococcus faecalis. Enterococcus faecalis occurs mostly in pairs or in short chains.
Enterococcus faecium Enterococcus facium is a gram positive, non-motile, facultative anaerobe. Enterococcus faecium is an ingredient in many products for show animals, livestock and companion animals.
Erwinia rhapontici Erwinia rhapontici is a gram negative facultative anaerobe that is motile by peritrichous flagella. Pink pea is caused by Erwinia rhapontici and results in weaker plants with reduced seed yield and quality.
Escherichia coli Escherichia coli is a gram negative facultative anaerobe that is motile by peritrichous flagella. More than any other bacterium, Escherichia coli is the workhorse of modern biotechnology. Escherichia coli is commonly used for everything from cloning DNA fragments for research to production of biotech products.
Flavobacterium aquatile Flavobacterium aquatile is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and motile. Flavobacterium aquatile is the type species for the genus Flavobacterium.
Flavobacterium mizutaii Flavobacterium mizutaii is a gram negative facultative anaerobe. Sphingobacterium mizutae is a synonym for Flavobacterium mizutaii.
Fusobacterium nucleatum Fusobacterium nucleatum is Gram stain negative, anaerobic and non-motile. Fusobacterium nucleatum is the type species for the genus Fuosbacterium
Geobacillus stearothermophilus Geobacillus stearothermophilus is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and motile. Spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are commonly included with packs of materials being autoclaved. Death of the spore form indicates the autoclave is functioning properly.
Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is gram postive and aerobic. Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius was reclassified from Bacillus thermoglucosidasius.
Gluconacetobacter xylinus Gluconacetobacter xylinus is Gram stain negative and aerobic. Gluconacetobacter xylinus produces cellulose of high purity which due to the orientation of the fibers can be formed into high quality audio membranes.
Gordonia rubripertincta Gordonia rubriperincta is Gram stain positive and aerobic. Gordonia rubripertincta was reclassified from Nocardia corallina.
Haemophilus aegyptius Haemophilus aegyptius is a gram negative facultative anaerobe. Haemophilus aegyptius is sometimes referred to as Koch-Weeks bacillus or Haemophilus influenzae biotype III.
Haemophilus aphrophilus Haemophilus aphrophilus is a gram negative facultative anaerobe. Haemophilus aphrophilus has been reported to cause endocarditis after tongue piercing (another reason not to do that...).
Haemophilus haemolyticus Haemophilus haemolyticus is a gram negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe. Haemophilus haemolyticus is differentiated from Haemophilus influenzae based on the hemolysis test using blood agar plates.
Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus influenza is a gram negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe. Haemophilus influenza was first described by Pfeiffer in 1892. It was mistakenly thought to be the cause of the disease influenza during the pandemic of 1890, and it was named accordingly. Haemophilus influenzae is differentiated from Haemophilus haemolyticus based on the hemolysis test using blood agar plates.
Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Haemophilus parahaemolyticus is a gram negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe. Haemophilus parahaemolyticus causes a septicaemic disease of swine.
Haemophilus parainfluenzae Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a gram negative, non-motile, aerobe. Many clinical isolates identified as Haemophilus parainfluenzae are, in fact, Haemophilus paraphrophilus.
Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori is Gram stain negative, microaerophilic, and motile via multiple unipolar flagella. Prior to the associated of Helicobacter pylori with stomach ulcers the medical community had determined that the neutralization of stomach acids was the key to controlling ulcers.
Ilyobacter tartaricus Ilyobacter tartaricus is Gram stain negative and anaerobic. Potentially bridging the gap between biotechnology and nanotechnology, the mechanism of the F1FO-type ATP synthase of Ilyobacter tartaricus is being investigated.
Klebsiella pneumoniae Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe. Klebsiella pneumoniae is commonly isolated from industrial and environmental biofilms.
Kluyvera ascorbata Kluyvera ascorbata is a gram negative facultative anaerobe that is motile via peritrichous flagella. Kluyvera ascorbata has been reported to induce plant growth whne the soil contains a high concentration of nickel.
Kocuria rosea Kocuria rosea is Gram stain positive and aerobic. Kocuria rosea was reclassified from Micrococcus roseus. Kocuria rosea degrades feathers.
Kocuria varians Kocuria varians is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Kocuria varians produces an antibiotic (Variacin) that controls the growth of Bacillus species.
Kurthia zopfii Kurthia zopfii is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and motile. A chitinase gene chiSH1 cloned from Kurthia zopfii has been investigated for control of powdery mildew pathgoens in barley.
Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes is Gram stain positive and aerobic. A novel antifungal and antioomycete antibiotic (Thiobutacin) has been isolated from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes.
Listeria welshimeri Listeria welshimeri is Gram stain positive, motile and a facultative anaerobe. Listeria welshimeri can be confused with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes by some laboratory tests.
Listonella anguillarum Listonella anguillarum is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and motile. Listonella anguillarum causes disease in approximately 50 different fish species.
Meiothermus ruber Meiothermus ruber is Gram stain negative and aerobic. Thermus ruber is a synonym for Meiothermus ruber.
Methanothermobacter wolfeii Methanothermobacter wolfeii is Gram stain negative, anaerobic, and non-motile. Methanothermobacter wolfeii can be isolated from sewage treatment plants.
Methylophilus methylotrophus Methylophilus methylotrophus is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and motile via a single flagella. Methylophilus methylotrophus is being used to produce methane from natural gas or methanol.
Microbacterium ammoniaphilum Microbacterium ammoniaphilum is Gram stain positive and aerobic. Microbacterium ammoniaphilum may be useful for the industrial production of racemates of various amino acids.
Microbacterium arborescens Microbacterium arborescens is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Glucose isomerase from Microbacterium arborescens is used in some industrial processes to isomerized glucose to fructose.
Microbacterium liquefaciens Microbacterium liquefaciens is Gram stain positive and aerobic. Microbacterium liquefaciens immobilised in polyvinyl alcohol has been shown to reduce chromate.
Microbacterium oxydans Microbacterium oxydans is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and motile. Microbacterium oxydans was reclassified from Brevibacterium oxydans.
Micrococcus luteus Micrococcus luteus is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Micrococcus luteus has been associated with spoilage of fish products.
Micrococcus lylae Micrococcus lylae is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Micrococcus lylae was isolated from human skin and grows occurring in tetrads.
Moraxella bovis Moraxella bovis is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Moraxella bovis causes pinkeye, infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), in cattle.
Moraxella nonliquefaciens Moraxella nonliquefaciens is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Moraxella nonliquefaciens is closely related to Moraxella bovis. Moraxella nonliquefaciens can be isolated from the respiratory tract of man.
Moraxella osloensis Moraxella osloensis is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Moraxella osloensis is associated a slug-parasitic nematode (Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita) that transports Moraxella osloensis into the shell cavity of the graden slug (Deroceras reticulatum) or other mollusk pests, and the bacterium kills the mollusk.
Neisseria cinerea Neisseria cinerea is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Neisseria cinerea was first described as Micrococcus cinereus by von Lingelsheim in 1906.
Neisseria denitrificans Neisseria denitrificans is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria gonorrhoeae is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is usually seen in pairs with adjacent flattened sides.
Neisseria lactamica Neisseria lactamica is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Strains of Neisseria lactamica had not been described in studies previous to 1969 because acid production from lactose was not used as a differential test for the identification of Neisseria species.
Neisseria mucosa Neisseria mucosa is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile.
Neisseria sicca N sicca is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile.
Neisseria subflava Neisseria subflava is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Neisseria subflava is part of the normal flora of the oral cavity and respiratory tract of humans.
Nesterenkonia halobia Nesterenkonia halobia is Gram stain positive and aerobic. Nesterenkonia halobia is noderately halophilic and was isolated from unrefined salt. Nesterenkonia halobia was reclassified from Micrococcus halobius.
Nocardia argentinensis Nocardia argentinensis is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Nocardia argentinensis produces an antibiotic (Nargenicin A1) effective against Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus and Clostridia.
Nocardia otitidiscaviarum Nocardia otitidiscaviarum is Gram stain positiven, aerobic, and non-motile. Nocardia otitidiscaviarum has been isolated in pure culture from activated sludge.
Oceanospirillum linum Oceanospirillum linum is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and motile. Spirillum linum is a synonyme for Oceanospirillum linum.

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